## Karl Pearson coefficient of skewness for ungrouped data

Let $x_i, i=1,2, \cdots , n$ be $n$ observations.

## Formula

The Karl Pearson’s coefficient skewness is given by

`$S_K =\dfrac{3(Mean-Median)}{sd}=\dfrac{3(\overline{x}-M)}{s_x}$`

where,

- $\overline{x}$ is the sample mean,
- $M$ is the median,
- $s_x$ is the sample standard deviation.

## Sample mean

The sample mean $\overline{x}$ is given by

```
$$
\begin{eqnarray*}
\overline{x}& =\frac{1}{n}\sum_{i=1}^{n}x_i
\end{eqnarray*}
$$
```

## Sample Median

Arrange the data in ascending order of magnitude.

Median of $X$ is given by

```
$$
\begin{equation*}
Md= \left\{
\begin{array}{ll}
\text{value of }\big(\frac{n+1}{2}\big)^{th}\text{ obs.}, & \hbox{if $n$ is odd;} \\
\text{average of }\big(\frac{n}{2}\big)^{th}\text{ and }\big(\frac{n}{2}+1\big)^{th} \text{ obs.}, & \hbox{if $n$ is even.}
\end{array}
\right.
\end{equation*}
$$
```

## Sample Standard deviation

sample standard deviation is given by

```
$$
\begin{aligned}
s_x &=\sqrt{s_x^2}\\
&=\sqrt{\dfrac{1}{n-1}\bigg(\sum_{i=1}^{n}x_i^2-\frac{\big(\sum_{i=1}^n x_i\big)^2}{n}\bigg)}
\end{aligned}
$$
```

## Example 1

The age (in years) of 6 randomly selected students from a class are

22,25,24,23,24,20.

Find the Karl Pearson’s coefficient of skewness.

### Solution

$x_i$ | $x_i^2$ | |
---|---|---|

22 | 484 | |

25 | 625 | |

24 | 576 | |

23 | 529 | |

24 | 576 | |

20 | 400 | |

Total | 138 | 3190 |

**Sample mean**

The sample mean of $X$ is

```
$$
\begin{aligned}
\overline{x} &=\frac{1}{n}\sum_{i=1}^n x_i\\
&=\frac{138}{6}\\
&=23\text{ years}
\end{aligned}
$$
```

The average of age of students is $23$ years.

**Sample Median**
The data in ascending order of magnitude is $20, 22, 23, 24, 24, 25$.

Here $n = 6$ which is even.

Sample median = average of $(\frac{n}{2})^{th}$ and $(\frac{n}{2}+1)^{th}$ observations.

Thus the median age of students is

```
$$
\begin{aligned}
M &= \frac{\big(\frac{6}{2}\big)^{th}\text{Obs.} +\big(\frac{6}{2}+1\big)^{th}\text{Obs.}}{2}\\
&= \frac{\big(3\big)^{th}\text{Obs.} +\big(4\big)^{th}\text{Obs.}}{2}\\
&=\frac{23 +24}{2} \\
&= 23.5 \text{ years}.
\end{aligned}
$$
```

The median age of students is $M=23.5$ years.

**Sample variance**

Sample variance of $X$ is

```
$$
\begin{aligned}
s_x^2 &=\dfrac{1}{n-1}\bigg(\sum_{i=1}^{n}x_i^2-\frac{\big(\sum_{i=1}^n x_i\big)^2}{n}\bigg)\\
&=\dfrac{1}{5}\bigg(3190-\frac{(138)^2}{6}\bigg)\\
&=\dfrac{1}{5}\big(3190-\frac{19044}{6}\big)\\
&=\dfrac{1}{5}\big(3190-3174\big)\\
&= \frac{16}{5}\\
&=3.2
\end{aligned}
$$
```

**Sample standard deviation**

The standard deviation is the positive square root of the variance.

The sample standard deviation is

```
$$
\begin{aligned}
s_x &=\sqrt{s_x^2}\\
&=\sqrt{3.2}\\
&=1.7889 \text{ years}
\end{aligned}
$$
```

Thus the standard deviation of age of students is $1.7889$ years.

**Karl Pearson’s coefficient of skewness**

The Karl Pearson’s coefficient skewness is

```
$$
\begin{aligned}
s_k &=\frac{3(Mean-Median)}{sd}\\
&=\frac{3\times(23-23.5)}{1.7889}\\
&= -0.8385
\end{aligned}
$$
```

As the value of $s_k < 0$, the data is $\text{negatively skewed}$.

## Example 2

A random sample of 11 patients yielded the following data on the length of stay (in days) in the hospital.

12,9,10,15,10,14,7,10,8,11,15

Find the Karl Pearson’s coefficient of skewness.

### Solution

$x_i$ | $x_i^2$ | |
---|---|---|

12 | 144 | |

9 | 81 | |

10 | 100 | |

15 | 225 | |

10 | 100 | |

14 | 196 | |

7 | 49 | |

10 | 100 | |

8 | 64 | |

11 | 121 | |

15 | 225 | |

Total | 121 | 1405 |

**Sample mean**

The sample mean of $X$ is

```
$$
\begin{aligned}
\overline{x} &=\frac{1}{n}\sum_{i=1}^n x_i\\
&=\frac{121}{11}\\
&=11\text{ days}
\end{aligned}
$$
```

The average of length of stay in the hospital is $11$ days.

**Sample Median**

$n = 11$ which is odd.

The data in ascending order of magnitude is $7, 8, 9, 10, 10, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15, 15$.

Sample median = average of $(\frac{n}{2})^{th}$ and $(\frac{n}{2}+1)^{th}$ observations

That is

```
$$
\begin{aligned}
M &= \text{value of }\bigg(\frac{n+1}{2}\bigg)^{th}\text{ obs.}\\
&= \text{value of }\bigg(\frac{11+1}{2}\bigg)^{th}\text{ obs.}\\
&= \text{value of } \big(6\big)^{th}\text{Obs.}\\
&=10 \text{ days}
\end{aligned}
$$
```

The median length of stay in the hospital is $M=10$ days.

**Sample variance**

Sample variance of $X$ is

```
$$
\begin{aligned}
s_x^2 &=\dfrac{1}{n-1}\bigg(\sum_{i=1}^{n}x_i^2-\frac{\big(\sum_{i=1}^n x_i\big)^2}{n}\bigg)\\
&=\dfrac{1}{10}\bigg(1405-\frac{(121)^2}{11}\bigg)\\
&=\dfrac{1}{10}\big(1405-\frac{14641}{11}\big)\\
&=\dfrac{1}{10}\big(1405-1331\big)\\
&= \frac{74}{10}\\
&=7.4
\end{aligned}
$$
```

**Sample standard deviation**

The standard deviation is the positive square root of the variance.

The sample standard deviation is

```
$$
\begin{aligned}
s_x &=\sqrt{s_x^2}\\
&=\sqrt{7.4}\\
&=2.7203 \text{ days}
\end{aligned}
$$
```

Thus the standard deviation of length of stay in the hospital is $2.7203$ days.

**Karl Pearson’s coefficient of skewness**

The Karl Pearson’s coefficient skewness is

```
$$
\begin{aligned}
s_k &=\frac{3(Mean-Median)}{sd}\\
&=\frac{3\times(11-10)}{2.7203}\\
&= 1.1028
\end{aligned}
$$
```

As the value of $s_k > 0$, the data is $\text{positively skewed}$.